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In haremul din Istanbul, pe urmele lui Hurrem, sultana fericita

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Haremul imperial sau palatul de agrement privat al sultanilor este cea mai comentata latura a vietii sultanilor chiar si in zilele noastre. Dar de ce s-a dovedit a fi haremul atat de controversat? Care este secretul din spatele faimei lui? Este fabulos pentru acoperisurile cu tigla sau pentru peretii cu mozaic si bogatiile care decoreaza incaperile? Sau intriga ideea de sute de concubine frumoase cu unica misiune de a face pe plac sultanului? Haremul este pana la urma o institutie a statului otoman, care a marcat istoria imperiului . Dar putine femei au influentat istoria imperiului otoman precum cea care avea sa devina celebra sultana Hurrem (Roxelana). A fost un personaj feminin de prim rang, care si-a cladit singura fiecare etapa a vietii sale tumultuoase, de la o biata roaba la cea mai temuta si controversata sultana din intreaga istorie a imperiului otoman.

Puterea si influenta sa i-au intrigat atat pe otomani, cat si curtile regale ale Europei. Dragostea obsesiva pe care i-a purtat-o cel mai mare sultan al tuturor timpurilor, Suleyman Magnificul, este un subiect fascinant si la ora actuala. A avut o personalitate mereu surprinzatoare si o ambitie indestructibila, combinate, se pare cu  o inteligenta peste medie, iar aceste calitati au facut-o nemuritoare in constiinta publica. Dar cat stiti despre “Ctitorita Cea Roscata”? Asa e alintata de unii istoricii Hurrem, adica sultana fericita, dupa cum a rebotezat-o sotul sau.

In 1541, un incendiu a distrus vechiul palat si tot haremul a fost mutat din palatul vechi la Topkapî, unde ea s-a aflat in imediata apropiere a sultanului (istoria spune ca mutarea se face la cererea Roxelanei) si astfel incepe Sultanatul femeilor, iar Topkapi devine un palat unic in lume prin arhitectura si design. Haremul era acum aproape de Curte (Divan), locul guvernarii. Hurrem, o fosta sclava din zona Ucrainei, devenise, datorita ascutimii mintii si darului vorbirii, sfetnica de incredere a lui Suleyman si se pare ca avea o mare influenta in politica externa. Unii istorici afirma ca ea a intervenit pe langa sotul sau pentru a reglementa traficul de sclavi al tatarilor din Crimeea , Moldova si Caucaz. Cum Hurrem ajunsese o “Haseki”, titlu purtat doar de sultane, care semnifica literalmente, „femeie care apartine doar sultanului”,  a acumulat o avere uriasa, din care a sponsorizat construirea a numeroase complexe arhitecturale atat in Istanbul, cat si in Ierusalim, Ankara, Edirne, Mecca, inspirandu-se dupa modelul fundatiilor caritabile create de Zubaida, sotia califului Harun al-Rashid.

Prin fundatiile ei se construiesc o moschee, doua scoli coranice, o fantana, alaturi de piata de sclave din Constantinopol. Ea a construit o baie, Haseki Hurrem-Sultan Hamami, pentru a servi comunitatea credinciosilor din cartierul bazilicii Sfanta Sofia. Complexul, denumit Haseki Kulliyesiwas, a fost ridicat in districtul Avrat Pazari din Istanbul si poate fi vizitat si in zilele noastre. In anul 1550, Hurrem a ordonat construirea in cadrul aceluiasi complex a unui spital pentru femei, alaturi de o cantina sociala. Totodata a mai cerut construirea unui mare hamam (baie publica), cu o sectiune pentru barbati si alta, evident, pentru femei. Cladirea este unica in cadrul hamamurilor din Istanbul.In Ierusalim a intemeiat in 1552 Hasseki-Sultan Imaret, o bucatarie care distribuia mancare saracilor si nevoiasilor.

“Ctitorita, cea roscata”, va ramane in istorie si pentru aceste gesturi, care au dainuit peste vreme ca semn al frumusetii ei sufletesti, dincolo de orice contradictie din scrierile istorice. Si cred ca Hurrem a mai lasat ceva in urma sa, ceva ce nu o sa piara, ceva nascut din iubirea ei, poemele sultanului, semnate de catre acesta cu pseudonimul Muhibbi (iubit sau prieten intim) si care, o parte, au fost recitate in serialul atat de urmarit la noi.

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